Maya L Hutapea, Didi Suryadi, Elah Nurlaelah


This article explains mistakes made by junior high school students in solving Pythagorean Theorem problems as well as analysis of students’ difficulties in applying mathematical concepts (epistemological obstacles), in which these were reflected in their test answers. This research used descriptive exploratory method to describe symptom and phenomena, which occurs within the students’ mind while solving the problem. Data were obtained from a test of Pythagorean Theorem problems given to 99 students from three different schools clusters. Results suggested that students tends to use a quick way to solve the problems without adequate understanding of the concept, remember the term alone without a profound understanding of the concept, fail in solving the problems with implicit information and the problem that requires visual representation in the process of solving the problem. Students also did not like the word problems or a problem with long questions. Teachers play a pivotal role in helping the students to overcome epistemological obstacles such as by giving the students more exercises as well as using different tools and technique in teaching the concept.

Keywords: learning obstacles, epistemological obstacles, pythagorean theorem


Artikel ini menyajikan kesalahan yang dilakukan oleh siswa sekolah menengah pertama dalam  menyelesaikan soal-soal terkait teorema phytagoras dan juga analisis mengenai kesulitan siswa dalam mengaplikasikan konsep matematik (epistemological obstacle). Kesalahan-kesalahan ini dapat dilihat dari jawaban yang diberikan siswa pada tes yang diberikan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif untuk menjelaskan  fenomena yang terjadi pada siswa dalam  menyelesaikan soal-soal terkait teorema Phytagoras. Data yang diperoleh pada penelitian ini berasal dari hasil tes soal-soal Teorema phytagoras yang diberikan pada 99 siswa dari tiga cluster sekolah yang berbeda. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa siswa cenderung menggunakan cara cepat untuk menyelesaikan persoalan tanpa memahami konsep, mengingat rumus secara utuh tanpa pemahaman yang mendalam terkait konsep phytagoras, gagal  menyelesaikan soal yang memuat informasi yang implisit dan soal yang memuat informasi yang disajikan secara visual. Hasil wawancara menunjukkan bahwa siswa tidak suka soal cerita dan soal yang disajikan secara panjang lebar. Guru memainkan peran yang sangat penting dalam membantu siswa untuk mengatasi epistemological obstacle seperti dengan memberikan siswa latihan soal serta menggunakan berbagai media dan teknik pengajaran dalam mengajarkan konsep.

Kata kunci: kesulitan belajar,  kesulitan epistemologis, teorema phytagoras

Full Text:



Brousseau, G. (1997). Theory of Didactical Situations in Mathematics. (N. Balacheff, M. Cooper, R. Sutherland, V. Warfield Eds & Trans). Dordrecht, Netherland: Kluwer Academic.

English, L. D. (2006). Mathematical modeling in the primary school: Children‘s construction of a consumer guide. Educational Studies in Mathematics, Vol. 63, hlm.303–323.

Galbraith, P., Stillman, G., Brown, J., & Edwards, I. (2007). Facilitating middle secondary modelling competencies. In C. Haines, P. Galbraith, W. Blum, & S. Khan (Eds.), Mathematical modeling: Education, engineering and economic (hlm. 130–140). Chichester, UK: Horwood.

Glenda Anthony and Margaret Walshaw (2009). Characteristics of Effective Teaching of Mathematics: A View from the West. Journal of Mathematics Education, Vol. 2 No. 2, hlm.147-164

Hill, H., Rowan, B., & Ball, D. (2005). Effects of teachers‘ mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. American Education Research Journal, Vol. 42, hlm. 371-406.

Kelly, A. E., Lesh, R. A., & Baek, J. Y. (Eds.) (2008). Handbook of design research in methods in education. Innovations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics learning and teaching, New York, NY: Rutledge.

Kementrian Pendidikan Nasional. (2006). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 22-24. Kemendiknas: Jakarta.

Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. (2013). Kurikulum 2013: Kompetensi Dasar Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) dan Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs). Kemendikbud: Jakarta.

Kramarski, B. (2009). Developing a Pedagogical Problem Solving View for Mathematics Teachers With Two Reflection Programs. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education Vol. 2 No. 1, hlm. 137-153.

Vankus, P. (2005). History and Present of Didactical Games as a Method of Mathematics’ Teaching. Acta Didactica Universitatis Comenianae Mathematics, Vol. 5, hlm. 54-68.

Watson, A., & Mason, J. (2006). Seeing an exercise as a single mathematical object: Using variation to structure sense-making. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, Vol. 8, hlm. 91–111.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

JPMIPA is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Jurnal Pengajaran Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam (JPMIPA) or Journal of Mathematics and Science Teaching 

All rights reserverd. pISSN 1412-0917 eISSN 2443-3616

Copyright © Faculty of Mathematics and Science Education (FPMIPA) Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI)


View My Stats